Filters

WORKING WITH PHOTOGRAPHIC FILTERS

Instructions
INTRODUCTION:

Filters allow you to take photos the way you want to see them, not just they way they appear. They can add colour, effects, dim light and add contrast. This assignment will teach you some theory and test some filters yourself.

BASIC REQUIREMENTS:
PART A:

Use the ‘Filter Information’ sheet to answer the following questions:
1. If you have a red filter on your camera and photograph somebody in a red sweater, what would happen to the tone of the sweater in the resulting print?
2. If a Mercedes in the background of the same picture appears dark, what
colour is the car likely to be in reality?
3. Why are black and white parts of you image not affected by filters, but shades of grey are?
4. If your camera uses a built-in light meter (like our Pentax KIOOO cameras), do you have to
Make adjustments using Filter Factors? Why or why not?
5. What natural phenomenon causes parts of a scene to appear much paler in distant landscapes?
How can it be dealt with?
6. There is some cloud in the sky, but it is a bit hazy and doesn’t contrast well with the blue.
Which filter would you use to increase the contrast and would it affect mainly the clouds or the blue sky?
7. What is the effect of a polarizing filter, and how does a polarizing filter do what it does?
8. Do neutral density filters affect the tonal range (colours) in a photograph?

PART B:

Applying your knowledge:
Use some of the filters available and create a series of pictures that show the effects of the various filters. Use enough filters on a number of subjects, so your images show off what the filters can do.
Marks are based on the proper and creative use of filters and your ability to present the use of them.
What you create to hand in, should explain to someone else what the filters can do!

FILM:

Take AT LEAST 30 PHOTOS. Keep a logbook, so you know which picture used which filter.
Develop your film and make contact sheets. Print the images that show the effect of the filter best.
DIGITAL: Shoot AT LEAST 60 PHOTOS – see what filters work with our cameras
Note: you can set the camera mode to B&W for some of the images.
IMPORTANT:. For all images taken with filter, also take the same image without a filter as a reference
– Place the two shots side-by side when you submit (on paper or electronically) .

KEY CRITERIA:

Complete questions, contact sheet, log, quality of images and reference shots

CHALLENGE:

Educate. You should be able to explain what the filter did in each shot, and WRITE these explanations for marks.
– Give the names of the filters, explain required adjustments and where you think the filter worked and where it did not.

Filter Info
FILTER INFORMATION
NOTE: FILTER FACTORS

If your exposure meter shows a reading of 1/60 sec. at f/16 and you wish to use a Y2 filter which has a factor of 2 (see factor table) for sunlight. it is necessary to do either of the following to obtain the correct exposure with the Y2 filter.

  • Expose at 1/60 sec. at f/11 lens aperture adjustment.

Or:

  • Expose at 1/30 sec. at f/16 shutter speed adjustment.
Lens aperture adjustment Shutter speed set at 1/125 sec.
Filter factor 1 2 4
Open lens by number of stops 0 1 2
Lens opening f/11 f/8 f/5.6
Shutter speed adjustment Lens aperture set at f/11
Filter factor 1 2 4
Multiply exposure by 0 1 2
Shutter speed 1/125 1/60 1/30

 TYPES OF FILTERS

 

COATED FILTERS FOR BLACK AND WHITE FILM:
Name Colour Factor
UV Trans-
parent
1 Absorbs ultra-violet rays without increase of exposure, thereby preventing haziness and foggy effects in distant landscape. It creates clearness. Constant use of this filter is recommended for clearer pictures as well as a lens protector.
Y 1
Y2
Yellow 1 5
2
Absorbs ultra-violet rays. neutralizes, to a certain extent, violet and blue rays and renders a good tonal interpretation many bright colors predominate. Creates clear and perfect contrast between landscape (or seascape) with blue sky and clouds. Can be regarded the most useful, perhaps essential, filter for bright outdoor picture.
02 Orange 4 Creates strong contrasts for red and yellow, which are rendered lighter than seen with the naked eye, against other colors. It penetrates haze, adds details to distant landscapes and subdues glare on the surface of water.
R2 Red 8 Absorbs ultra-violet blue, green and yellow rays. rendering the red and yellow objects lighter. In sunlit outdoor photographs with panchromatic film, this filter has a strong effect on contrast; the blue sky will be rendered darker, red and yellow subjects lighter than the eyes see them. Will cut through haze for long distance shots. This filter is normally used with infra-red film.
G Green 4 Besides providing all the effects of the Y2 filter, it lightens green foliage by darkening the colors it absorbs. It is preferable to the Y2 for outdoor portraits because it produces healthier and more natural skin tones;
YG

Yellow-

Green

2 Corrects the color rendering of panchromatic film to approximate that of the human eye and imparts a natural effect to skin and lip color tones in portraits.
ND 2X
ND 4X
ND 8X
Grey

2

4

8

The most frequent need for a neutral density filter (ND) arises when taking pictures in bright sunlight on high speed film as the smallest aperture available on some lenses, f/16. is too large for scenes in bright sunlight with fast film. In still photography, one occasionally encounters very brilliant subject which require neutral density filters.
COATED FILTERS FOR COLOR FILM:
Name Colors Factor
Skylight (1A) Light
Pink
1 Creates the effects given by Y2 filter in case of black and white film. Reduces excess blue and adds warmth to the pictures. “All-purpose filter.

Flash

(80C)(80B)

Dark Blue.

2.4

2.7

Converts and permits the use of daylight type color film in photography with a clear flash lamp.

Cloudy

(81 A)(81 B)

Brown

1.2

1.4

Reduces blue in light. Ideal for photography under cloudy or hazy light, will give the best color reproduction.
Mor.. or Eve. (82A) Blue 1 .4 Reduces excess red in the light, and suitable for early morning or late afternoon photography.
Convertible (85A) (85B) Dark Brown

2

2.4

Converts and permits the use of type A color film for outdoor photography in daylight. This is used only with tungsten color film.
Flood  (80A) Blue 3 Reduces red in light. For use in photography with daylight films with a photo flood lamp.
FILTERS FOR ALL FILMS:
Name Colors Factor
Diffuser
(Soft Focus) Spot
Achromatic 1 Diffuser produces soft, gently diffused images. especially desirable for landscapes and portraits; helps reduce need for retouching in portraits by subduing wrinkles. Degree of diffusion is controlled by lens opening—the larger the opening, the greater the effect.
Cross Screen
(Soft Focus
+ Cross flare)

Achromatic

 

Cross Screen can create X flares also by changing its position. Look directly into the Cross Screen and see the brilliance of the subject or the direction or position of flare, and you can form a general idea about its photographic effect.
Polarizing Filter  (PL) Grey 2.5
to3
Excludes glare and reflections to produce clearly resolved pictures, by excluding light from a particular direction. (Think Venetian Blind) Helps bring out form and color, where glare or reflections are a problem such as on water surfaces, glass-framed pictures. and windows. In color shots, the blue of the sky is accurately rendered, and when used with a yellow filter it produces clear color scenic shots. Before mounting this filter on the camera, look through it at the scene to be taken, turn it until the desired effect appears. Note the filter position with reference to the mark, then mount the filter in this position on the camera. The factor varies with the amount of light excluded from three to four, equivalent to 2.5 to 3.
Available Filters

AVAILABLE FILTERS

SOLID COLOUR FILTERS

001 Yellow

002 Orange

003 Red

004 Green

005 Sepia

007 Ultra Violet

020 Blue (80A)

172 Varicolour Pink/Orange

GRADUAL FILTERS

120 Neutral Grey G1

123 Blue B2

124 Tobacco T1

151 Fog

197 Sunset

SPECIAL EFFECT FILTERS

056 Star 8

103 Closeup +3

123 Split Field +3

086 Pastel

POLARIZER FILTERS

160 Linear

161 Red

162 Blue

164 Circular

 

All COKIN Filters

 

Gallery of Samples